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Novosibirsk plant was built in 1979. In it consisted of gostinicy Novosibirska. In 1993, the bakery was joined by the neighboring grain company, and founded the bakery "Inskoy". In 1995 it acquired the status of ZAO "Inskoy".1996 G. for open joint stock company "city" was a year of major events for technical re-equipment and organisational development.In 1996, the Society held a successful placement of shares of the new issue, the result of which has received significant funds which were used to Finance technical re-equipment.The overriding right to purchase fotografii Novosibirska s vysoty belonged to the workers (men working in the company for 10 years female 7 years old and pensioners), which was purchased by 51% of all shares . 20% of the shares remained in state ownership, about 24% is purchased by agricultural producers, 5 % - FARP (Fund of workers of the enterprise).Currently, the plant incorporates the following production workshops: the mill, bread and pastry shops, as well as production line of pasta and cheese shop.The plant stored grain Fund of the Novosibirsk region and is 15 thousand tons.The authorized capital of JSC Plant "Inskoy" is 126410 thousand rubles. The highest governance body is the Board of Directors. The General Director carries out operational management of the company and shall be granted in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation all the necessary powers to perform this task. The company has shares in the number 126410 pieces with nominal value of 1000 rubles, which are distributed as follows: 51% of employees, 20% of the city administration, 29% of the concerned enterprises.In assortment plan, the JSC Plant "Inskoy" includes more than 20 types of bakery products, among which the greatest demand: the bread of the Demjansk, 1s.; bread with bran, 1s.; wheat bread, 2C.; baguette, rye; rye bread, rye. The Supreme body of the limited liability company is the General meeting of its participants. The limited liability company an Executive body performing current management of its activity and accountable to the General meeting of its members.. number of Staff of JSC "Inskoy" more than 200 people. .
2.2. Analysis of pricing strategies in JSC "Inskoy"the Price of bread, ZAO "Inskoy" directly depends on the grain prices. The pricing strategy is to follow the leader in the daily domashnie kvartiry. This method should include in the price all costs, including VAT, plus the planned profit. ZAO "Inskoy" the prices are also not valid, because this plant is a leader in the region.Before you start pricing it is necessary to develop a pricing strategy (table 1). Table .
Pricing strategy of CJSC "Inskoy"the Establishment of the initial price Initial pricing should take into account the following elements:Discounts or lower prices can increase predigitized can be caused by theft, non-delivery of goods etc D. the Product may be damaged by careless servants or pokupatelyami for employees can serve as an incentive motiovation expenses cover all costs not included in cost of goods sold and propylesoste of goods sold includes direct costs of goods purchased for resale Find rabota v Nizhnem Novgorode ( in the Nizhny Novogorod) you can just and you have to be high enough to ensure a profit.The establishment of the final size of prices At this stage will involve the following tasks:Create own system for buyers (firms, wholesalers, databases)determination of the mechanism of price adjustment in the future, including the stage of the product life cycle and inflation.1. Pricing based on prices set by competitors. As we have seen, the market is filled with competitors and there is a situation when the competition is still mild. Thus, there is no need to "adjust" for competitors, especially in the city of Novosibirsk, as we have seen, competitors have bread enough. Move on to the second method. 2. Pricing based on break-even analysis and ensure profit target. Calculate the breakeven point for ZAO "Inskoy". The calculation is made on the basis of the balance sheet for 2009 table 2Анализ break-even point, ZAO "Inskoy" on 2010 Figures 2009 sales Volume 354 120Доход 203 623Условно variable costs 280 155Товар at purchasers ' prices 201 255Прочие -.
and services production. The nature of the Fuel and energy 20 000Потери from marriage -PAYROLL and accrual variables 58 900Валовая profit (76 532)Conditionally fixed costs 100Арендная 100Заводские fee expenses-Cost of goods 361Прибыль 185 (76 632)break-even Point 210Анализ konkurentsiameti activities of kvartirnoe BYURO on deliveryposutochno kvartiry v Novosibirske rent is not new, it is not subject to rapid changes. So there are competitors, occupying no small share of the market (table. 3).Table 3Конкурирующие firms, their pokazatelyami.
konkuriruyushchimi Place of eurosprite Tolerance(in %) Estimated sales (t) Estimated losses visualnet competitors (t)"Inskoy", Novosibirsk 85% 1932 275Мини bakeries, Novosibirsk 10% 1056 190Дока-bread Novosibirsk 5% 792 87Итого 100% 3780 552Для assessment of their comparative advantage we use the method of segmenting markets by major competitors, allowing you to organize information on the competitiveness of the company and major competitors.This information will be presented in the form of a table. 4.Table 4Оценка factorscompetitiveness.Factors of competitiveness of Inskoy are the Main competitors of a Mini-bakery Doc-хлебТовар1.1. Quality 4 4 31.2. Technical and economic indicators 4 5 41.3. Prestige trading марки1.4. The uniqueness of 52 5 31.5. Reliability 3 3 21.6. Protection of patents 4 4 4Цена2.1. Продажная2.2. Terms of payment 35 34 .
433. Distribution channels 3.1. Forms of distribution: - direct delivery; 3 - sales representatives; 5 3 4 - enterprise-producers; 4 3.2. The degree of market coverage 4 5 33.3. Allocation of the storage areas 5 4 43.4. The transport system 5 5 54. Promotion of products to markets 4.1. Advertising: - for users; 4 4 3 - for Resellers; 2 4.2. Individual sale: - incentives for consumers; demonstration trade; 0 3 3 - a show samples of the goods; 3 0 04.3. Television marketing 3 3 24.4. Selling via mass media 2 2 3Общее points 61 66 50Из analysis of competitors shows that our company is on the market in the total amount of 15%, and the evaluation of factors of competitiveness - the company has not bad opportunities.Conduct analysis of competitors ' prices (table. 5).Table 5Анализ competitors ' prices Inskoy (RUB) Mini-bakery (RUB) Doka-Khleb (RUB)white Bread 25 23,5-24 24Батон 22 22 19,5 19,5 24Ржаной 22Как seen from table 5 bakery "Inskoy" average prices. The lowest prices at the mini-bakeries in all types of bread, Doka - Khleb above all was the prices for a loaf. 3. The DEVELOPMENT of a RATIONAL PRICING POLICY, ZAO "INSKOY"Further describes the development of the introduction of possible types of discounts for wholesale buyers and the calculation of the efficiency of increased demand from such events. It is proposed to introduce the following types and size of discounts:1) Discount for sales of wholesale buyers. When purchasing bakery products in large volumes - set discount 3-5% of the transaction value. This discount for the apartment kvartiry na sutki will increase the volume of sales (what the firm aspires) and also to attract buyers interested in large quantities of goods. (Such clients can be schools, gardens, restaurants, etc.)..
2) Discount for preferred purchasers, in relation to which JSC "Inskoy" particularly interested. The discount to favored customers is determined in the negotiations. But before ZAO "Inskoy", it is recommended to conduct a study on the following questions: what partners interested shop (who they?); with whom these companies are working at present; what are the conditions of this cooperation (price, additional services); to analyze the enterprise, which cooperates with at the moment; we are interested in the company; analysis of the quality of competitors ' products; the level of customer service in the company-competitor.After a detailed analysis to develop a better offer and offer it to the company management, in which we are interested. Offer of the enterprise must be better than the competitors offer at least three or four paragraphs.At risk understand the probability of some kind of events deviation from the average expected result. Each type of operations with securities has its own risk level. Liquidity risk is connected with possibility of losses when the sale of securities. In the secondary market, this risk is manifested in the decrease in the anticipated sales price of the event or change the fees for its implementation. If it is impossible to implement the issuance of securities in the primary market for the first the apartment office, there is a risk of non-publication, i.e. the irrelevance of the securities . Temporal risk — the risk of securities in the optimal time, which leads to the probability of certain losses. The systematic risk. The downside risk of the securities market in General, not associated with specific securities. Is a General risk in all investments in securities, the risk that the investor will not be able in General to release to return without suffering losses. There are the following types of systematic risk:
Inflation risk. Buying securities, the investor Bank is feeling the effects of inflation, as a result, the income derived by investors from securities depreciated from the point of view of real purchasing power and the investor suffers losses. The risk of legislative changes. In society there is always the possibility of a radical change of course, especially with the election of a new President, Parliament, Duma, and government. Consequently, the possibility of failure of the government to fulfil the commitments already made on certain securities or delay in the performance of these obligations.
Interest rate risk is the risk of loss that may be incurred by investors in connection with changes in interest rates on the securities market. The risk of military conflict is a military action conducted on that particular territory and leading to disruption of the functioning of the organized markets, including stock exchanges. The second type of risk can be considered unsystematic risk. It is associated with peculiarities of each specific securities, qualification of operators, working with securities. It allocate risks: Credit risk — the risk that the Issuer of securities will fail to pay interest or the principal amount dopha. Convertible the risk. Appears in the translation oblige or preferred shares into ordinary shares. Country risk— the risk of investing in securities of countries with volatile stock position. The regional risk. Arises not only in connection with different economicposition areas, the level of development of the stock market, technology, trading of securities, relationships with Central stock markets apartments, but the peculiarities of the tax climate action local administration etc.The selective risk is the risk that the wrong choice of securities for investment compared to other types of securities in the portfolio. Temporal risk— the risk of issue, purchase or sale of securities in the optimal time. The technical risk associated with the servicing of operations with securities. It includes the following varieties: delivery Risk — failure to comply with obligation to deliver securities. Risk payment — the current payment system allows to pay for a certain period of time for the purchase of securities. Operational risk is mainly related to incompetence of the technical staff. br>
Monetary risk depends on interest rate fluctuations and has two sources: reduction in yields and the depreciation of the capital invested in this paper. Bankruptcy risk is associated with the rating produced by the company of the securities.Insurance protection based on contractual, i.e., legal, relationships. The owner of the portfolio securities, passing the risk the insurance company is called insured. The person accepting the risk is called the insurer. The relationship between the insured and the insurer issued the insurance contract. When signing the insurance contract, the policyholder shall pay the insurer the insurance premium, which is otherwise called insurance premium and the insurer undertakes to pay to his client the insurance indemnity, if the insured risk will be implemented .
the motive for the insurance of securities is quite diverse. So, if the Issuer insures the issue of securities, it will mean the presence of additional guarantees for potential investors. The rating of the insurance company is added to the rating of the Issuer, and can rely on the successful placement of securities on more favorable terms. Investor, in turn, receives greater confidence in maintaining the value of this package, there will be less to worry about creating financial reserves in case of damage, it is easier and more favorable conditions can get a loan on the security of these securities, etc. Insurance securities interest and brokerage and postel'noe bel'e v Novosibirske the company engaged in mediation services in this kind of business, and the stock exchange, as insured securities have greater financial stability.Under insured means actually occurred, documented the event, which is accompanied by wow-voennymi in the contract negative developments and on the basis of which the insurer is obliged to pay the policyholder compensation. However, not all the losses of the policyholders are paid insurance companies. Depreciation of shares and other securities of the company resulting from its deliberate and action, not covered by the insurer. If the Issuer of securities is clearly guilty of the reduction of the amount of distributed profits, the investor the policyholder who purchased these securities must bear their share of the business risk in these transactions.The most typical circumstances when you do not accept claims for damages incurred in connection with the fall of stock exchange securities course .
• the company, a shareholder of which is the policyholder did not investing capital in the improvement of production technology and has not undertaken other activities aimed at improving the efficiency of its activities, which resulted in a reduction of profitability and reduction of its competitiveness;• fault management of the company has been increasing costs of production of products or reduced sales volume;• as a result of wrong actions of the management company Oka-Salas obliged by court to reimburse its customers or partners who have suffered losses due to its fault, to pay fines, penalties and similar sanctions.
the insurance Contract provides for binding clarification of all these circumstances. If the contract insures the risk of falling exchange rate of securities, it provides an extensive list of the situations that are covered by insurance and fall under the concept of insured event. Insured by the depreciation that occurred as a result of such economic and political events:• natural disaster - fire, explosion, accident, flood, land of the great, etc. In all types of insurance, a natural disaster qualifies as an insured event, the insurer will compensate the resulting losses;